obverse to reverse – die alignment – is expressed by an arrow for axis on each side. Medals, for example, are usually ?? (medal turn); while most coins are ?? (coin turn). For rotated dies, where the reverse can be any of 360° positions in relationship to the obverse, these can be expressed by the direction of the second arrow, as æ. In some numismatic works, shorthand has evolved by omitting the first arrow since it always points to the 12 o'clock position. Medals whose axis intentionally read two way as a bishop turned into a clown when rotated 180°) is called inversion. See also die alignment, orientation.
excerpted with permission from
For Artists, Makers, Collectors and Curators
COMPILED AND WRITTEN BY D. WAYNE JOHNSON
Roger W. Burdette, Editor